Seleucid Empire: Family Politics
These notes were originally written for the tetradrachm from Antioch, that is found at the end of this text, with a fabulous Tyche. The Seleucid empire was crumbling at the end of the second century and the beginning of the first. My most recent coin, a Tetradrachm of Antiochos VIII Epiphanes, prompts me to revisit and rewrite these notes. The portrait of Antiochus VIII is fairly recognizable, and not surprisingly he had the nickname Grypus (Greek: Γρυπός, "hook-nose").
Between Egypt & Parthia
Before we get to Grypus, I will start with a bit of background on the Seleucid empire, illustrated with additional coins: Ptolemy VI Philometor, of Egypt, put Alexander I Balas on the throne in Syria, and gave his daughter Cleopatra Thea to him in marriage.
The Ptolemies, Ptolemy VI Philometor, First sole reign, 180-170 Cyprus Obol Cyprus 180-170, Æ 23mm, 9.65g
Obv: Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right
Rev: Eagle with closed wings standing left on thunderbolt; lotus flower in left field, EYΛ between legs
Ref: Svoronos 1401 (Ptolemy VI with Eulaios), SNG Copenhagen 295 (Alexandria).
Notes: Nice dark green patina, Very Fine. From and old Canadian collection.
Seleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 152-145 BC, AR Drachm, Antioch on the Orontes mint, Undated issue, struck 151–149 BC
Obv: Diademed head of Alexander I to right
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ - ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ / ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow and resting hand on grounded bow; Θ in exergue.
Ref: SC 1785.1c
Ptolemy VI then backed Demetrius II, as he took back his family's throne and he gave Demetrius his daughter, Cleopatra Thea, as part of the bargain. Ptolemy VI died from wounds in the final battle with Alexander Balas and his brother took the throne as Ptolemy VIII.
In the midst of all of this a fellow who named himself Diodorus Tryphon, a former general (strategos) for bother Demetrius I and Alexander Balas, saw an opportunity. He took Apamea and Antioch and held on while Demetrius had other more important priorities and eventually declared Alexander Balas' 5-year-old son as Seleucid King Antiochus VI. Shen Antiochus VI died - he declared himself King. His coins read "Basileos Tryphonos Autokrator" loosely translating as King Tryphon "Independent Authority" or "Supreme Commander".
Seleukid Empire, Tryphon Æ 19mm, Antioch on the Orontes, circa 142-138 BC
Obv: Diademed head to right
Rev: Spiked Macedonian helmet with cheek guards, adorned with wild goat's horn above visor; BAΣIΛEΩΣ TPYΦΩNOΣ to right, AYTOKPATOPOΣ to left, flower symbol inner left
Demetrius was captured by the Parthians (Mithridates I), and his brother, Antiochus VII, took the throne and Cleopatra Thea. Antiochus VII eventually defeated Tryphon in 138 BC.
Seleucid Kingdom, Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes) (138-129 BC), AR tetradrachm, Antioch on the Orontes
Obv: Diademed head of Antiochus VII right, diadem ends falling straight behind; bead-and-reel border / BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY / EYEP-ΓETOY
Rev: Athena standing facing, head left, resting left hand on grounded shield decorated with gorgoneion, spear resting against arm, Nike in right hand extending wreath into border; ΔI monogram above A in outer left field, AM monogram in inner right field, all within laurel wreath.
Ref: SC 2061.4h
Antiochus VII, battled with Parthia to reclaim eastern lands for the Seleucid empire from Mithridates I, only to lose them to Phraates II.
Seleukid Kings, Antiochos VII Euergetes nicknamed "Sedetes" for his city of origin (138-129 BC), Æ19, 6.15g, Antioch on the Orontes, year 176 (137/6 BC)
Obv: Winged bust of Eros right
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EYEPΓETOY Isis headdress; crescent and star below, IOP in exergue (date)
Parthia, Phraates II, 132-126 BC, AR Drachm, Tambrax mint
Obv: Diademed bust left; TAM down right
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ / ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ, Archer (Arsakes I) seated right on omphalos, holding bow
Ref: Sellwood 16.11; Sunrise 272; Shore 50
Phraates II released his captive, Demetrius II, to create confusion, and after Antiochus VII died in battle or killed himself, Demetrius became Seleucid king again. This coin from Demetrius II's second reign and year 127/6.
Seleucid Kingdom, Demetrius II Nicator (second reign, 129-125 BC), AR tetradrachm (13.96g), Tyre, dated SE 186 (127/6 BC)
Obv: Diademed, beardless, draped bust of Demetrius II right, seen from front, dotted border
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ-ΔHMHTPIOY, eagle standing left on prow, palm under wing; A/PE above club surmounted by TYP monogram to left, AΣY monogram above ςΠP (date) to right, ΓHP monogram between legs.
Ref: SC 2195.4b
We can only imagine the life of Cleopatra Thea who was married first to pretender to the throne Alexander I Balas, then Demetrius II, then his brother Antiochus VII, and ended up back with Demetrius again ruling over a truncated kingdom. Demetrius II Nicator ruled 129-25 BC and died battling another usurper named Alexander who was this time sponsored by Ptolemy VIII.
This new usurper, Alexander II Zabinas, initially supported by Ptolemy VIII, defeated Demetrios II in 125 BC. However, Ptolemy VIII was as fickle a supporter as his brother, and in only a couple of years turned on Alexander II in favor of his neice, Cleopatra Thea, and her son by Demetrios II, Antiochus VIII.
Seleukid kings of Syria, Alexander II Zabinas, 128-122 BC, Æ, Antioch on the Orontes mint, Struck circa 125-122 BC
Obv: Radiate and diademed head of Alexander II right
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Athena standing left, holding Nike and spear, shield propped against base of spear; to inner left, monogram above grain ear
Seleukid Empire, Alexander II Zabinas, 128-122 BC, Æ (19mm, 5.57g), Antioch mint,dated ZΠP (187 = 126/5 BC)?, Obv: Diademed head right Rev: Dionysos standing left, holding thyrsos and kantharos; to outer left, IΣI above ivy leaf; ZΠP (7+80+100 = date) to inner left Ref: SC 2229.1e
Note: the ones digit of the date is cvhallenging to make out it could be one of several letters: EΠP (SE 185 = 128/7 BC), ΣΠP (186 = 127/6 BC), ZΠP (187 = 126/5 BC), HΠP (188 SE = 125/4 BC)
Seleucus V, son of Demetrius, made a play to become king, however his mother, Cleopatra Thea, quickly shot him dead with an arrow. Cleopatra Thea reigned briefly as sole ruler, then became co-regent with her younger son, by Demetrius, Antiochus VIII a.k.a. "Grypus", named for his Γρυπός or "hook-nose". Grypus killed his mother, according to Appian with poison that she had prepared for him. Grypus fought in civil war with his half-brother, "Cyzicenus" and his uncle.
Seleucid Kingdom, Antiochus VIII, 121/0-97/6 BC, AR tetradrachm, 16.33g, Damascus, 119/8 BC
Obv: Diademed head of kingfacing to right. Fillet border
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ Zeus Uranius, nude, standing to left, holding vertical scepter in left hand and extending right hand through legend, holding eight-rayed star. In outer left field, ΑΡ above ΕΣ. In exergue, Δϙp (year 194 of the Seleucid era). All within laurel wreath.
Ref: SC 2322.3a.
The Seleucid Kings, Antiochus VIII Epiphanes, Grypus (Greek: Γρυπός, "hook-nose"), AD 121-96, Antiochia, Tetradrachm circa 109-96, AR 27.00 mm., 15.57 g. Obv: Diademed head r. within fillet border
Rev: Zeus Nikephoros seated left; monogram in left field, all within wreath
Ref: SC 2309
Notes: Old cabinet tone and Good Very fine, from the collection of a Mentor.
The Seleucid Kings, Antiochus VIII Epiphanes, 121-96 BC Antiochia Tetradrachm circa 121-113, AR 28.00 mm, 16.02g Obv: Diademed head right
Rev: Zeus Ouranios, draped, standing l., holding star and sceptre; to outer left, IE above A, Δ in exergue
Ref: SC 2298.2.
Notes: Old cabinet tone and Good Very fine, from the collection of a Mentor.
All of this is long-winded context brings us to this coin. The date on my tetradrachm is a "Civic Year" or CY 13 (97/96 BC). This is 13 years that start from 109/8 BC when Grypus granted the city of Seleukia Pieria independence in gratitude for support during his civil war. Here is an excerpt of the letter from Antiochus Grypus (Greek: Γρυπός, "hook-nose") to Ptolemy X referencing this:
"Now, being anxious to reward them [The people of Seleukeia in Pieria] fittingly with the first [and greatest] benefaction, [we have decided that they be] for all time free, [and we have entered them in the treaties] which we have mutually concluded, [thinking] that thus [our piety and generosity] toward our ancestral city will be more apparent." - Royal Correspondence: 71
Seleukis and Pieria, Seleukeia Pieria, 105/4-83/2 BC, AR Tetradrachm, 30mm, 14.90g, dated CY 13 (97/96 BC)
Obv: Veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right
Rev: ΣEΛEYKEΩN / THΣ IEPAΣ / KAI / AYTONOMOY, Filleted thunderbolt on throne; ΓI (date = 13) below, monogram (ω/Δ) to lower right; all within wreath.
Ref: Callataÿ, Production, pp. 75–6
There is theoretically a Christine Thompson/C. Arnold-Biucchi study (~1998) referenced by Callataÿ with more information on these coins, but I have been unable to find it, so far, and any information would be appreciated - contact by email.