Tigranes II the Great
Seleucid King Antiochus The Great (223-187 BC), expanded his empire by installing Artaxias as the governor (strategos) of Greater Armenia and Zariadres as governor of Sophene. Then when Antiochus was defeated by the Romans in 191 BC and shortly before the signing of the Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC, these two generals of Antiochus, turned to Rome and were recognized as independent kingdoms.
"According to historians, Armenia, which was formerly a small country, was enlarged by Artaxias and Zariadris, who had been generals of Antiochus the Great" -Strabo, Geography, Book 11, Chapter 14.5
The Artaxid dynasty starts about 189 BC. Tigranes II was the grandson of Artaxias I and son of Tigranes I. While he was held as a hostage to the Parthians he had two children, a daughter Aryazate who would be married to Gotarez I son of Mithradates II of Parthia, and a son Tigranes the Younger who would eventually become co-regent with his father.
"The king of Armenia, at this time, was Tigranes, who had long before been committed as a hostage to the Parthians, but had subsequently been sent back to take possession of his father’s throne." -Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, XXXVIII.3
Where was the Armenian Empire?
The Reign of Tigranes II
Initially ceding territory to the Parthians to secure his return to Armenia, he campaigned successfully to retake these territories and more. Tigranes expanded the Armenian rule by conquering the Sophene kingdom and other neighbors. Tigranes allied himself with Mithridates of Pontus.
After Rome recognized Ariobarzanes I as King of Cappadocia in 97 or 96 BC Mithridates VI of Pontus sought support from Tigranes, king of Armenia, to advance his interests in Cappadocia. He gave Tigranes his daughter Cleopatra in marriage. Tigranes chased Ariobarzanes out of Cappadocia and Ariobarzanes fled to Rome. Sulla was sent to restore him to power circa 94 BC. This led to Sulla holding a first meeting with the Parthians which hit a few snags (for more see: Sulla, First Meeting with Parthia.
Ultimately Tigranes was defeated in the Mithridatic Wars by Lucullus, Sulla's general in Asia minor, in 68/9 BC. Tigranes is betrayed to Pompey by his son, and surrenders to Pompey. Pompey divides the kingdom with Tigranes keeping Armenia Major and his son Tigranes the Younger taking Sophene. He remains a client king to Rome until his death in 56 BC. Cicero comments in Pro Sestio:
"[Pompey] thought it no less glorious for himself and for this empire, that the king should be known to be restored by him, than if he had kept him in bonds. Therefore, Tigranes—who was himself an enemy of the Roman people, and who received our most active enemy in his territories, who struggled against us, who fought pitched battles with us, and who compelled us to combat almost for our very existence and supremacy—is a king to this day, and has obtained by his entreaties the name of a friend and ally, which he had previously forfeited by his hostile and warlike conduct." - Cicero, For Sestius, 27
The image on the back of this coin seems to serve a dual purpose of reinforcing Tigranes rule over Antioch and the founding of his capital Tigranocerta.
Kings of Armenia, Tigranes II ‘the Great’, 95-56 BC, Tetradrachm, AR, 28.5mm, 15.66g, 1 h), Tigranocerta (literally meaning built by Tigranes), circa 80-68
Obv: Draped bust of Tigranes II to right, wearing five-pointed tiara decorated with comet star between two eagles
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ - TIΓPANOY The Tyche of Tigranocerta seated right on rock, holding long palm frond in her right hand; below, river-god Araxes swimming right; on rock, monogram; in field to right, θ; all within wreath
Ref: Kovacs 74.2; Nercessian die study Group 2, A22
Note: a nice clear EF coin, pleasing toning, and good metal, with die break on obverse and double strike on reverse
In contrast to the coin above this AE coin recognizes Tigranes as King of Kings.
Kings of Armenia, Tigranes II ‘the Great’, 95-56 BC, AE Tetrachalkon (6.26g, 21mm, 12h), Tigranocerta, circa 80-68
Obv: Draped bust of Tigranes II to right, wearing five-pointed tiara decorated with a star between two eagles and tied with a diadem
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ - BAΣIΛEΩN / TIΓPANOY, Tyche of Tigranokerta seated right on rock, holding long palm frond in her right hand; below, river-god Araxes swimming right; in fields to right, monogram of TP and A
Ref: Kovacs 81
Notes: A lovely, well struck piece with an nice portrait. Good very fine.
In a 1983 article by Paul Z. Bedoukian on Coins of the Sophene Kingdom there is this description of Mithradates I Callinicus (96-70 BC).
"Several coins have been attributed to this king. It is curious that he ruled during the period when Tigranes had gained control of both Sophene and Commagene. It may be that Mithradates was allowed to strike coins even though he recognized the overlordship of Tigranes. The same situation seems to have occurred with his successor, Antiochus."
Frank Kovacs describes Mathridates II Philopater ruling from ca. 89 to some time after 85 BC.
Kings of Sophene, Arkathiokerta (?) mint (the city name meaning : built by Arkathias), Mithradates II Philopator, circa 89- after 85 BC, Dichalkon Æ 17mm, 3.44g
Obv: Head left in bashlyk, tied with diadem
Rev: Club in wreath
Note: this could be an early coin of Mithridates II where he uses the dies of his predecessor (brother Arkathias II) which had no reverse legend. Alternatively there may be faint legend on this coin (BACI to left, MIΘ to right). Legends on these coins are generally not very well executed.
A coin of Tigranes II was featured on an Armenian 500 dram banknote from 1993-2005.
Bedoukian, P. (1978). Coinage of the Artaxiads of Armenia, Royal Numismatic Society, London.
Kovacs, F.L. (2016). Armenian Coinage in the Classical Period, Classical Numismatic Group, London.
Nercessian, Y.T. (2006). Silver Coinage of the Artaxid Dynasty of Armenia, Armenian Numismatic Society, Los Angeles. Note: die study of tetradrachm of Tigranes II.
FOSS, C. (1986). The Coinage of Tigranes the Great: Problems, Suggestions and a New Find. The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-), 146, 19–66.
Bedoukian, P. Z. (1983). COINAGE OF THE ARMENIAN KINGDOMS OF SOPHENE AND COMMAGENE. Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), 28, 71–88.
For a discussion of the Armenian Crown see https://www.peopleofar.com/2015/05/29/what-was-the-true-shape-of-the-ancient-armenian-crown/