Mark Antony and a Late Republican Cistophorus
Updated: 2 days ago
This 2017 ANS book by William E. Metcalf arrived in my mailbox this week. I learned of the book while I was researching a Cistophoric tetradrachm that I bought in 2015. There is a thorough review of the book here.
What drew my attention to the coin, and subsequently the book, was the question of who issued the coins with the monogram shown on the left, and when. There was a potential connection to Marcus Antonius, a supporter of Sulla in the civil war between Marius and Sulla. M Antonius was ultimately was killed while at a dinner party by minions of Marius in 87 MC. He is also one of the main characters in Cicero's dialog De Oratore, and in Brutus, a History of Famous Orators, where Cicero praises him together with L. Licinius Crassus. The evidence doesn't support this connection.
I am thrilled with this important reference book and commentary, it adds to my understanding and appreciation of the painstaking work that it takes to connect information that I take for granted, from dies, hoards, style assessments and historical records. I also appreciate the carefully curated and printed pictures of >500 coins in 86 plates illustrating die variations. After a lot of squinting, I think my coin matches obverse die O21 seen in two of the coins in the book - with still a healthy level of uncertainly. Features that I crudely see as a “two line lid”, a “duck”, a “mouse” and “two balloons with string” convince me as well as some image overlays that seemed to fit reasonably. After a bit of careful paging through the images, I also found a match for my reverse die - RB28 from coin 644.
On page 166 of “Ancient Greek Coins”, GK Jenkins writes: "the so-called ‘cistophoric’ coins of the cities in the Pergamene kingdom, which started at the time of Eumenes II and which are distinguished only by the most uninspiring of all Greek coins designs (the cista mystica and a bow case with writhing snakes)". This lack of appreciation and some large issues has the upside of making these coins more affordable, in nice condition, than other Greek/Roman silver coins from this time period.
Mysia, Mint: Unknown (Pergamon or Ephesus?), AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm, Unknown Quaestor (?) maybe L. Sempronius Atratinus (?)
Date: 42-39 BC
Obv: Cista mystica within ivy wreath
Rev: Bow case between two serpents; monogram above, Q to left, thyrsos to right.
Size: 12.6g (heavier than the average 12.13g and median 12.25g for this issue as found in the book above), and 25mm
The images on this coin are connected to the Attalid dynasty started by Philetaerus as he took control of Pergamon in the power struggles that followed the death of Alexander the Great. These tetradrachms were sometimes minted in relatively large numbers from a small number of dies, and had an exchange rate of 1 to 3 with the Roman denarius, and 4 to three for with attic standard tetradrachms. The cista mystica, the grapes and ivy leaf, are references to Dionysus, a deity from whom the Attalids claimed descent. On the reverse, the bow-case refer to Herakles, father of Telephus, the legendary founder of Pergamon, who is also claimed as an ancestor by the Attalids.
When I purchased the coin, the issuer was described as Lucius Antony, brother of Mark Antony, or Marcus Antonius their grandfather who was a quaestor in Asia in 113/112 BC. However, a note from 2009, by William E Metcalf, summarized in the book, makes a convincing case based on the monogram, shared obverse dies, and hoard evidence that the date range for this coin is 42-39 BC and a possible quaestor is L. Sempronius Atratinus. He notes, ”the monogram contains all the elements of ATPATIN in Greek”. Atratinus was the praetor who struck on behalf of Mark Antony and should have been quaestor before that.
There is a second coin issued (I don’t have one to show) – which is almost the same except that is has torch on the reverse in place of the thyrsos. A thyrsos is staff of giant fennel topped with a pine cone used in Dionysian rituals. Shared obverse dies across these two coins is convincing evidence that they were minted in one location (not two as is often described).
Share your later republican cistophoric tetradrachms and any information or other coins that might be relevant.
W.E. Metcalf “The Later Republican Cistophori” ISBN 978-0-89722-347-8 Hardcover, 184 pages
W. E. Metcalf, "A Note on the Later Republican Cistophori," SNR 88 (2009), pp. 205–8
ANS Digital Library, the “Early Cistophoric Coinage”, http://numismatics.org/digitallibrary/ark:/53695/nnan30795
An interesting overview of the history of the Kingdom of Pergamon here: https://www.ancient.eu/pergamon/.
ACSearch for L Sempronius Attratinus
Wikipedia entry for L. Sempronius Atratinus: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Sempronius_Atratinus
Stumpf, pp. 14-17
RPC I, p. 376
1998 Jörg Müller suggesting that the series should be split into two groups and the first group shifted by ~5 years later
Rigsby, K. (1979). The Era of the Province of Asia. Phoenix,33(1), 39-47. makes the case that 134/3 BC was a civic era related to the granting of freedom by Attalus III to Ephesus.