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Coins of the Second Triumvirate

Lex Titia, passed by the senate on November, 27 43 BCE, formed the "2nd Triumvirate", and granted broad authority to Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian for five years as "trivmviri rei pvblicae constitvendae" - three men to restore the republic. This triumvirate was renewed a bit late from the 5 year anniversary in 37 BCE for an additional 5 years January 37 - December 33 BCE.

This coin (first shared in a post a couple of years ago) was issued by Mark Antony and Lepidus as allies. It was issued just as they met with Octavian to agree to rule Rome as a triumvirate. It is an exceedingly rare coin from a pivotal moment in the history of the Roman Republic, before the formation of the Second Triumvirate.

Mark Antony and M Aemelius Lepidus, 43 BCE, AR Denarius (3.71g, 18mm)

Mint: Military mint traveling with Antony and Lepidus in Cisalpine Gaul

Date: Crawford dates this issue between 30-May-43 and early 42

Obv: M ANTON [IMP], lituus, capis, and raven

Rev: M LEPID IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, securis, apex

Ref: Crawford 489/2; Sydenham 1156; RSC 2

My latest coin is a quinarius that dates to the same period as the denarius above. Antony appears alone on this coin while others in the series, like the coin above have both Anthony and Lepidus represented. This is taken to imply that Anthony was the more senior partner.

Marcus Antonius, AR Quinarius (13.10mm, 1.77g) between 30-May-43 and early 42, minted in Gallia Transalpina and Cisalpina

Obv: M ANT (ligate) IMP Lituus, jug and raven

Rev: Victory crowning trophy

Ref: Babelon Antonia 7. C 82. Sydenham 1159. Sear Imperators 121. Woytek Arma et Nummi p. 558. RBW 1711. Crawford 489/4. Scarce.

Notes: Countermark on obverse, otherwise About Very Fine. ex NAC sale 100, 2017, 1636. From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection.

The relationship between Mark Antony and Octavian was rocky from the start with several attempts to reconcile. After the "Perusine War", AD 40, where Mark Antony's wife Fulvia and brother Lucius, challenged Octavian over the rights of farmers, Fulvia conveniently died of an unknown illness and Mark Antony and Octavian needed each other enough to renew their partnership.

A portrait of Fulvia as victory is shown on the obverse of this quinarius included in the same series as the coins above by Crawford. The XLI on this coin seems to refer to Mark Antony's age at time of birth (he turned 41 on 14-Jan-42 BC) and by this time "trivmviri rei pvblicae constitvendae" IIVIR R P C had been formed by Lex Titia, passed by the senate on November 27, 43 BCE. This coin probably issued on behalf of Mark Antony during his absence.

Mark Antony, Quinarius, 1.59g, Transalpine Gaul, 43 BC

Obv: III VIR R P C, winged bust of Victory (with features of Fulvia) right

Rev: A- XLI with lion walking right, ANTONI IMP

Ref: Crawford 489/6

After her death, Octavian and Mark Antony agreed to a new division of power with Octavian taking the West and Italy, Mark Antony taking the East, and Lepidus Africa.

Octavian, 44-27 BC. Denarius (Silver, 18.2mm, 3.63 g, 6h), military mint moving with Octavian in Italy, spring-summer 42 BC.

Obv: CAESAR•III•VIR•R•P•C Bare head of Octavian with slight beard to right.

Rev: Wreath set on curule chair inscribed CAESAR •DIC•[PER].

Ref: Babelon (Julia) 89. Crawford 497/2a. RBW 1756. Sydenham 1322.

The Roman Republic C. Caesar Octavianus. with L. Cornelius Balbus. Denarius, mint moving with Octavian 41, AR 17 mm, 3.3 g. C·CAESAR ·III·VIR·R·P·C Head of Octavian r. Rev. BALBVS – PRO·PR Club. Babelon Julia 91 and Cornelia 78. C 417. Sydenham 1325a. Sear Imperators 298. RBW 1802. Crawford 518/1.

Roman Republican The Triumvirs. Octavian. Early 40 BC. AR Denarius (18mm,2.64g, 1h). Military mint traveling with Octavian in Italy; Q. Salvius, moneyer. Bare head right, wearing slight beard; C • CAESAR • III • VIR • R • P • C around / Winged thunderbolt; Q • SALVIVS • I (MP) • COS • DESIG around. Crawford 523/1a; CRI 300; Sydenham 1326b; RSC 514; RBW 1808.

The Treaty of Brundisium was agreed in September 40 BC. Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia, to reinforce the alliance. This coin celebrates this union, which would not last long once Mark Antony visited Egypt and fell for Cleopatra VII.

The Triumvirs, Mark Antony and Octavia, Summer-autumn 39 BC, AR Cistophorus (11.58g, 27mm, 12h), Ephesus mint

Obv: M·ANTONIVS·IMP ·COS· DESIG·ITER ET·TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath; lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers

Rev: [III·VIR] – R·P.C., draped bust of Octavia right above cista mystica, flanked by interlaced serpents with heads erect

Ref: RSC 2; RPC I 2201

This quinarius shows "Concordia" on the obverse and clasped hands on the reverse, it reinforces the renewed commitment to partnership in 40-39 BC. This coin celebrates the reconciliation with clasped hands, and is interesting also for the graffiti which annotated the severed concord that followed with a dagger and cuts to the wrist of one of the triumvirs. I would guess that it is Mark Antony's wrist being slashed, given Octavian was the ultimate victor.

The Triumvirs, Octavian and Mark Antony, late 39 BC, AR Quinarius (12mm, 1.84 g, 12h), military mint traveling with Octavian in Gaul

Obv: III•VIR• R•P•C, veiled and diademed head of Concordia right

Rev: M•ANTON C•CAESAR, lasped right hands holding caduceus

Ref: Crawford 529/4b (no IMP in reverse legend) ; King 81

This next coin is a bronze. A contemporary imitation of an issue from Octavian, declaring his authority as the son of Caesar. This coin was minted the year before Antony and Octavian made an agreement and renewed their triumvirate.

Roman Republic, Triumvirs, Octavian and Divus Julius Caesar, South Italy, 38 BCE, Æ (28mm, 8.84g, 3h)

Obv: CAESAR (right) DIVI F (left), bare head of Octavian right

Rev: DIVOS IVLIVS, wreathed head of Divus Julius Caesar right

Ref: Crawford 535/1; RPC I 620

Note: Contemporary imitation

This next coin is from the period between Republic and Empire shortly after Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus renewed their tense alliance in 37 BCE at Tarentum (Taranto). It is the year that Octavian ended the Pompeian resistance and Sicilian revolt at the Battle of Naulochus (3 September 36) and stripped Lepidus of power (22 September 36). Marcus Vispanius Agrippa was the naval commander credited for the victory that was fought near Naulochus, Sicily.

The second triumvirate between Mark Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus was an uneasy alliance and the three men used their coins to demonstrate their legitimacy and stake their authority as leaders of the republic. Robert Newman (1990) cited below, has a useful catalog of coins from this period arranged chronologically. He reviews the political rivalry that can be seen in the coins.

Roman Republican, the Triumvirs, Octavian, 36 BCE, AR denarius (17.5mm, 3.25 g, 5h), Southern or central Italian mint

Obv: IMP CAESAR DIVI F III VIR ITER R P C, bareheaded and bearded head right

Rev: COS ITER ET TER DESIG, tetrastyle temple of Divus Julius: statue of Julius Caesar as augur standing within temple; DIVO • IVL on architrave, star within pediment, figures along roof line; lit altar to left

Ref: Crawford 540/2; Sydenham 1338; RBW 1829

Note: two banker's marks to the right of Octavian's ear

The Obverse

This issue showing Octavian bearded could have several interpretations:

  • a “beard of mourning” for Julius Caesar

  • “campaign beard” for the battle with Sextus Pompey

  • an attempt by the young Octavian to look more mature

Given the focus on this coin of Divus Julius Caesar, I prefer the beard of mourning explanation even if it was about 8 years after his death.

The obverse shows a portrait of Octavian, with title "Imperator" which was accorded to successful military commanders in the Republic. He emphasizes on this coin his relationship with Julius Caesar: "Caesar Divi Filius", son of the deified Julius Caesar, and "triumvir iter respublicae constituendae", twice triumvir (three men with Mark Antony and Lepidus) for the restoration of the republic.

The Reverse

Plaque next to Julius Caesar's altar in the Roman Forum. Image by Howard Hudson at English Wikipedia, used under CC BY-SA 3.0 license, via Wikimedia Commons

The reverse of the coin similarly emphasizes his authority of title and as the son of divine Julius Caesar. "consul iterum et tertio designatus": consul twice and a third time designated. The temple on the reverse was not yet built, but was a project to replace on the site where Caesar was cremated and where a column and alter were erected and torn down by factions against Caesar. The temple on the coin would be completed and inaugurated by Octavian on August 18th 29 BCE for the divine Julius Caesar. The star on the pediment is "sidum Iulium", the comet from July 44 BCE, that after the death of Julius Caesar on the Ides of March (15th) was considered a sign of his divinity. Little remains of the temple today.

"He [Julius Caesar] died in the fifty-sixth year of his age, and was ranked amongst the Gods, not only by a formal decree, but in the belief of the vulgar. For during the first games which Augustus, his heir, consecrated to his memory, a comet blazed for seven days together, rising always about eleven o'clock; and it was supposed to be the soul of Caesar, now received into heaven: for which reason, likewise, he is represented on his statue with a star on his brow."

-Suetonius, Divus Julius, 88

The coin is attributed to Statilius Taurus (general and twice consul), who may have minted this issue to pay the legions encamped in Sicily (see: Buerger coin collection).

Praeneste, Relief commemorating the battle of Actium, ca. 31 BCE, Rome, Vatican Museums, Rabax63, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons

This next coin is a 2g bronze/copper denarius - an interesting contemporary imitation with remarkably official looking style. I have found two similar coins in ACSearch listed as "contemporary imitation. Legionary issue, mint moving with Antony in Greece (Patrae?)". It imitates well a scarce Legion XII ANTIQVAE denarius - perhaps even an engraver of official issues? It remains a mystery coin for now, and I hope will reveal itself over time.

Contemporary imitation of an Mark Antony denarius: 32-31 BC? AE-Denarius (bronze, 2.00g, 16x14mm). Legionary issue, mint moving with Antony, Legion XII?

Obv: ANT, war galley under oar right with triple ram prow and scepter tied with fillet

Rev: [XII] ANTIQ[VAE], legionary eagle (aquila) between two standards (signa)

It is an imitation of this coin (Legion XII Antiquae) (ACSearch not my coin).

Mark Antony, Autumn 32-spring 31 BC, AR Legionary Denarius, Patrae(?) mint

Obv: Praetorian galley right; ANT • AVG above, III VIR • R • P • C below

Rev: Aquila between two signa; LEG • XII • ANTIQVAE around above.

Ref: Crawford 544/9

Legion was formed again in 44-43 BC most likely by Lepidus and taken over by Anthony from 41 to 31 BC. They fought in the Battle of Actium and were settled as colonists in Patrae, Greece by Antony or more likely Octavian soon after Actium. (*ref)

Here is an official issue legionary denarius from Legion XI:

Mark Antony, 32-31 BC, AR Legionary Denarius, Patrae(?) mint

Obv: ANT • AVG above, III VIR • R • P • C below, galley right

Rev: LEG XI, legionary aquila between two signa

Ref: Crawford 544/25; CRI 362; Sydenham 1229

Even after Octavian/Augustus became sole emperor of Rome, the coins retained some level of continuity with the Republican norms. This coin from Q. Rustius recognizes Caesari Augusto on the reverse with an altar to Fortuna Redux (Fortune returned), and the coin is authorized by the Senate (Ex Senatus Consulato).

The moneyer connects to his family roots in the references to his ancestor's coins: the ram's-head finials on the bar under the goddesses (two fortunae) recall the ram on the reverse of L. Rustius (RRC 389 in 76 B.C.), and the legend FORTUNAE ANTIAT refers to his ancestors Antiate origins. The altar to Fortuna Redux was consecrated on the day of Augustus' return, 12 October I9 BC. He entered the city from Porta Catena, where the altar was placed.

Roman Imperial, Augustus, AR Denarius (3.59g, 20mm, 10h) , struck by Q. Rustius, Rome, circa 19 BC

Obv: Q RVSTIVS FORTVNAE, jugate busts of Fortuna Victrix wearing round helmet and Fortuna Felix, diademed, ANTIAT in exergue

Rev: CAESARI AVGVSTO, ornamented rectangular altar inscribed FOR RE, EX SC in exergue

Ref: RIC 322

Augustus wrote about this day in his Res Gestae Divi Augusti ("the achievements of the deified Augustus") :

"The Senate consecrated in honour of my return an altar to Fortuna Redux at the Porta Capena, near the temple of Honour and Virtue, on which it ordered the pontiffs and the Vestal virgins to perform a yearly sacrifice on the anniversary of the day on which I returned to the city from Syria, in the consul­ship of Quintusº Lucretius and Marcus Vinucius, and named the day, after my cognomen, the Augustalia."
-Augustus, Res Gestae, 11 


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